1. Honey Moisture: The natural moisture content of honey in them is the moisture remaining from the nectar after reaching the honey ( ripening ) . The percentage of moisture depends on the factors involved in reaching the honey.Factors such as: the condition of the weather and humidity of the nectar. Moisture content is one of the most important characteristics of honey, which affects the quality of care, its sugar content and its concentration.
2. Honey Sugars: Honey is above all carbohydrates in terms of sugar content and contains 95 to 99.9 percent sugar in solids.
Sugars are classified according to the size and composition of their molecules. Simple sugars, dextrose and lulose, two sugars, maltose (malt sugar), sucrose (regular sugars) and lactose (milk sugar). Sophisticated sugars are a combination of three or more sugars.
Honey is a very complex ingredient in sugars. Including:
Maltose , Kojibiose, isomaltose, Nigerose, abacaviruses, gentiobiose, Laminaribiose , Melezitose , Maltotriosis , Turanose , one – cytosine (1-kestose0 , panose , maltulose , isomaltotriose , erlose , theanderose and α – α – d-glucopyranosyl (6-1) – α-alpha – glucopyranosyl (3-1) -diglucopyranosyl.
Isophanose , Isomaltotetraose, Isomaltopentaose, Isomaltulose, Centose ,
1-α – D – glucopyranosyl – D – fructose -α -β- D-glucopyranosyl – (1-1) -A – α – D-glucopyranose- (1-4) D-glucopyranose.
Simple sugars such as dextrole and lolos are dominant in honey, and they make sweets honey, moisture properties, energy value, and physical properties. There are more luloses in almost all honey from flowering plants than Dextrose.Only the types of honey that they smell very quickly, such as blue curl , dandelion and rapeseed, have dextrose rather than lulose.
3. Honey acids: Because of its high confection, the acidity of honey remains hidden. Separate citric acid, acetic acid, butyric, malic and succinic and formic acids in honey.
The most important acid found in gluconic acid is derived from dextrose. Also, lactic acid, pyroglutamic acid and mineral acids such as phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid have been identified in honey. Also found in Amine acids that are building proteins are found in honey.
4. Minerals in honey: The average amount of honey ash is about 0.17 percent honey, but the percentage of ash of honey is from 0.02 to more than 1 percent. Darker honey contains more minerals than lighter honey.
5. Enzymes in Honey: The most important enzyme in honey is the enzyme called invertase , also known as sucrose and sucrase. It is also an enzyme called diastase (amylase), whose origin and action remains hidden in honey and is said to be produced mainly by bees and added to honey. The importance of diastase is simply to measure it and to withstand heat.
Commercial honey has low diastase levels. Because Europeans prefer to use unheated honey.
Another enzyme that has been reported is catalase and phosphatase and glucose oxidase. The enzyme originates from the glottis and converts glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (oxygenated water). Gluconic acid is the most abundant acid in honey.
6. Honey vitamins : Thiamine, Riboflavin, Ascorbic Acid, Pyridoxine, Pentotonic Acid and Nicotinic Acid in honey. B vitamins as well.
7. Honey Dextrins: In the newest honey dissection experiments, in which honey was mixed with heavy alcohol, a part of the mixture was dissociated from the rest of the clot-like state, which, as it also occurs in the mixing of starch syrup with alcohol, is also called dextrose of honey. Called.
With this method, you can discover the mixture of corn syrup with honey.
8. Honey Colloids: Colloids are non-crystalline, consisting of proteins, waxes, pentosines and mineral compounds.Bright honey usually contains about 0.2% colloid material and dark honey contains about 1% colloidal matter.
The actual protein content of honey is 0.1 to 0.6 percent.
9. Antibiotic Activity of Honey, Inhibin: Honey uses honey in treating wounds, burns, infections, and some other disorder. Honey bactericide, in addition to the effect of inhibin and the production of hydrogen peroxide (oxygenated water), and the bacterial effect of this substance, is due to the concentration and high osmotic pressure of honey.Because any biologically or creature living in an environment with a higher osmotic pressure than the water, it loses water in terms of the difference in pressure, and if a certain amount of water is lost, a single, cellular, living organism is destroyed, the existing one Dying and bacteria, whether pathogenic or non-pathogenic, die when they die, will not be able to reproduce, produce or produce poison, and therefore their effect will be caused. When honey is covered with a hole, since the honey keeps the wound from free contamination, the wound heals immediately if the ulcer is superficial and the bacteria do not penetrate deep into the skin and into the blood.
10. Other biological active substances in honey: Honey has been reported on several biological activities, such as rooting activity, estrogen activity, growth effects on the product, cholinergic action, and increased appetite. Clinical activity has been attributed to the presence of clay and acetylcain in honey. The other type of biological activity of honey is its toxicity. A few types of honey contain sufficient amounts of toxic substances derived from plant sources, and these types of honey cause discomfort after the beekeepers are well aware of this.
11. Flavor and smell of honey: the most important characteristic of honey. Which depends on the size of the variety of plant nectar in nature.
Honey and good taste of honey in the heat and inadequate storage (storage) are eliminated.
12. Various Honey Flowers: A few of the hundreds of martyrs that meet bees meet, they are commercially important.
In one experiment, it was found that the average composition of 76 honey and 4 types of honeydew did not have a significant difference with the combined composition of honey collected from all over the United States. It was also found that the honey production area had a very small effect on the production of honey.
13. Nectar and its transformation into honey: In the conversion of nectar to honey, some sugars such as dextrose, lulose, and maltose are more concentrated than the rest. The range of sugars in honey depends on the sugars and enzymes present in the nectar, as well as the enzymes secreted from the bee. Part of the amino acids in the honey originate from pollen. Probably the beast will add the diastase to the nectar and the diastase activity will appear. But some may also be from pollen.
14. Sugar Honey (Honey Crystallization): Sugarcane is not a reason for being fake. Instead, it’s a natural sign. As the crystals formed are white, the grated honey is brighter than liquid honey, and is similar to solid vegetable oil.
Granulated sugar, the characteristic of a honey is not heated, naturally or deliberately blended with fine grained honey.
The most suitable temperature for sugar is 57 degrees Fahrenheit. Storing honey at very low temperatures (zero degrees Fahrenheit or lower) deploys sugar well but does not completely eliminate it.
15. Honey Fermentation: Honey fermentation is carried out by yeast that acts on lulose and dextrose sugars and is produced by fermentation of alcohol and carbon dioxide. Alcohol in the presence of oxygen may decompose into acetic acid and water. As a result, the fermented honey is salty. Fermented honey is actually a honey coral. Usually, after fermentation, fermentation and honey are done.
Conventional yeasts can not ferment honey because they can not grow in high concentrations of honey. Bacteria can not corrupt honey because acidity is high. There are major sources of yeast resistant to the concentration of honey sugars in flowers and soil.
Requirements for kill honey in yeast
|Heating time (min)
In short, it can be said:
1. All honey contains yeast.
2. Honey after fermentation is susceptible to fermentation.
3. Honey with more than 17% moisture may be fermented and honey with more than 19% moisture must be fermented.
4. Storage of honey at temperatures below 50 ° F prevents fermentation.
5. Heat the honey at 145 degrees Fahrenheit for 30 minutes, kill the yeast and prevent the fermentation of honey.